Biography of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar

Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar

Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (also Akbar the Great, Akbar-I) was the greatest Mughal Emperor in India. When Humayun died, Akbar was a minor. Even then he sat on the throne. But, he had a very competent mentor and guardian in Bairam Khan. And in the same year Akbar the Great had to face Himu, the commander of Afghan leader Adil Shah, in the field of Panipat. That battle is known in the history as second battle of Panipat. In the battle, Akbar and his Mughal army came out winner. Himu was killed.

This win was very important to a minor king. Akbar quickly grabbed the opportunity and started to expand his kingdom. Within a short span of four years he captured Ajmer, Gwalior, and Jaunpur etc. In 1561 A.D. Malawa came under his fold. In 1964 A.D. Mughal army captured Gondwana, where Queen Durgavati gave a brief effort to resist the Mughal rath but failed. Queen Durgavati was killed in the battle.

Akbar had a very good far-sight. He understood that to run a kingdom in India, he should have the friendship of a brave race like Rajputs. He gave high positions to Bhagwan Das and Man Singh, Behari Mall’s son and grandson respectively, in his administration.

Mewar did not accept the dependence of Akbar without a fight. So Akbar lay a seize on Chitore fort (1567 A.D.). Uday Singh, the Rana of Mewar, fled to the forest after being beaten in the battle. After Uday Singh’s death his son Rana Pratap Singh tried to rescue Mewar’s independence. But in the battle of Haldighat the Rajput army was defeated by Mughal army led by Man Singh and Asaf Khan. Rana Pratap continued his fight from there. Before his death, Rana Pratap could recapture some of his forts. Akbar then occupied Gujarat (1572 A.D.), Surat (1573 A.D.) and Bengal (1576 A.D.). Man Singh, the commander of Akbar subjugated ‘Baro Bhuiya’ (twelve landlord of Bengal). Orissa, Kashmir, Sind (1592 A.D.), Baluchistan and Kandahar came under his control, one after the other.

In the case of South India, Akbar at first gave a call to the rulers there to accept his alliance of subsidy. But other than Khandesh no kingdom responded positively in his call. So he had to go for battles and attacked Ahmadnagar. Chandbibi, as the guardian of the minor Sultan of Ahmadnagar, gave away Berar and signed a treaty with the Mughals. But here the matter did not end. In 1600 A.D. Mughals occupied Ahmednagar city. Next year the Asirgarh fort came under their control. Thus, Akbar’s king­dom was spread from the Himalayas in the north to Godavari in the south and from Hindukush in the west to Brahmaputra in the east.

Akbar died in the year 1605 A.D.

By Amit Agarwal