Short Paragraph on Examination


Examination is a test of what one has learnt in the past. It tries to find out the depth of knowledge of the examinee through an organized test. It helps one to recapitulate his depth of knowledge.

It is not always true that by an examination one’s actual merit or demerit can be judged, because the system being a screening medium, everything cannot be correctly ascertained from a candidate’s answers, just by putting a few selected questions in the test. Success or failure in examinations is known as the common standard of judging one’s merit; but how far it is true is matter of doubt.

Examinations can, however, reveal to some extent the amount of industry, application and perseverance that student has undertaken.

– Bipasha Mukherjee.

Short Paragraph on Gardening


Gardening is one of the most interesting hobbies. One’s spare time can be spent and enjoyed by gardening. It may be done in a small or big garden, and also on the terrace of a house in a small way. Flowers and fruits are generally grown in a garden but if sufficient space is available, vegetables may also be grown.

Gardening provides pleasure and profit to one who does it. Gardening is one such activity that allows us to spend some time in the lap of nature and learn intersting facts about plants. Many children take up gardening as a hobby during their summer and winter vacations.

– Bipasha Mukherjee.

Short Paragraph on Necessity is the Mother of Invention

Necessity is the Mother of Invention

All the inventions made on this earth are the results of necessity – sometimes it may be due to the intellectual necessity; and sometimes it may be due to the moral necessity that leads man to invent or discover new things. I

f someone feels hungry, he will go out in search of food, and come back with at least some food or some hope to get it. So, whenever there is a necessity for something, man looks for its fulfillment. As man began to be more civilized, his necessity grew more by degrees, and his needs were satisfied with his quest to solve the problems.

Though all inventions are not the direct results of necessity, but by far, most of them are.

– Bipasha Mukherjee.

Short Paragraph on Value of Time

Value of Time

Time is the most valuable asset of a person. There is a proverb: ‘Time and tide wait for none’.

Time is like money. Once it is spent, it cannot be used again. It is very important to understand the value of time. A person who understands the importance of time gets success in every walks of life.

History gives us the proof of the fact that all successful and prosperous personalities were punctual about time.

So time must be used properly in order to get the maximum benefit out of it.

– Bipasha Mukherjee.

Essay on Rising Prices

Rising Prices

Prices of goods have been on a constant rise over past few years. A cursory look at the socio-economic scenario: inflation on a long lease; prices on the run for different consumer articles, purchasing power of money on down-hill slide, a widening budget deficit, strangely enough, consumerism on an ecstatic ascent; foreign exchange reserves at their lowest ebb; strikes and bandhs taking place on every conceivable pretext; and law and order in limbo – the list of ailments could be multiplied to any extent. Ironically enough we are so lost in ‘non-issues’ and overwhelmed by rhetoric and polemics that the malaise around and the malady within have become inescapable and irreversible resultants, the remedy of which seems to lie in the dictum ‘let nature take care of these problems’.

A hard as well as a harsh fact about which there are no two opinions is that the prices of branded consumer products have maintained a steady upward trend regardless of other events taking place in the economy. There has been a steady, upward trend in the prices of major branded consumer food products and toiletries. Barring a few exceptions, the rate of inflation in prices of common articles of consumption’s has kept pace with, or even outstripped the rate of increase in the general price index.

In some areas like milk products and cooking oil, there have been spectacular increases within a span of few months, which have had a considerable impact on consumer behaviour. Prices, which had always been a major factor in influencing consumer-purchase decision, have suddenly assumed critical importance. There is usually a seasonal decline in prices after September because of the arrival of Kharif crop but 1990 has been a special case. Despite a third bumper monsoon in a row, prices have been rising instead of falling since September 1990.

Ordinarily, prices obey the dictates of ‘demand and supply phenomenon’ at a given point of time. But with the explosion of population right at our threshold any talk of curbing or controlling the demand for essentials of life, is like putting the cart before the horse or casting pearls before a swine. Policy makers and planners are fully aware of the catastrophe that an uncontrolled population can cause to the system, however efficient and elegant it may. Mere platitudes and persuasions to put under check this monster have failed to yield results and no amount of mean incentives is going to abate the gravity of situation that stares us in the face.

Besides, the people of the country, as a whole, should be educated and instructed that there are no short cuts to prosperity, although some unscrupulous and unprincipled goons may have acquired wealth and other possessions through dubious means. Nor is the policy of populism an answer to our ever-growing problems. We have seen that under one dispensation ‘loan melas’ are arranged and money distributed for considerations other than economic and equity; under another dispensation loans worth thousands of crores are waived off and thus circulation of unproductive money and budgetary deficits, both of Centre and States, are pushed further in the name of ‘social justice’ ‘egalitarianism’ et al.

Over the years, generation of black-money and the role of ‘parallel economy’ have played havoc with the psyche of common man and thus have distorted and disfigured all talk of ‘socio-economic equality’ and rule of law. With bags full of ‘black-money’ and ‘five-star’ culture the current coin, conspicuous living and open display of ‘money-power’ are but the natural consequences of these distortions.

One can count many other factors that have contributed to the perennial, painful and poignant pressure of prices on a common man’s life, for whom to himself and to his family are becoming an unending nightmare. The cult of consumerism, however fragile, is encompassing more and more votaries in its fold.

A number of factors seem to have propelled a boom in the sale of consumer goods in rural markets. The Green Revolution, along with White Revolution; remittances from abroad of Indians in the Gulf countries; improved literacy and education etc, are creating demands, for goods, the fall-out of which is inevitable on the entire infra-structure of essential and non-essential articles of mass consumption.

Many a time artificial scarcities are created by a quick quirk of circumstances like ‘bandhs, strikes, curfew’, complete or partial break-down of transport net-work due to happenings, agitations, protests in areas of supply of essential commodities like food-grains, edible oils, coal, petroleum products, etc. all these adverse and abnormal causes push the prices further up on the graph and it is a common experience that once the prices have enjoyed the ascent towards sky, they refuse to come down easily and voluntarily, whatever be the intensity of prayers, pleadings or persuasions of ‘powers-that-be’.

For the affluent, the erosion of money-value is the least bothering problem. Business and trading groups feel the pinch for a while and then adjust themselves to the on-going developments by managing the ‘cost and sale’ economics of their respective trades and business. Highly organized sections, whether in public or private sectors, are compensated for any loss of real wages in the form of ‘dearness allowance’, which is periodically revised without much fuss or furry. The vast unorganized man-power, whether in urban or rural areas, as also the daily wage-earners, are left to fend for themselves.

The most surprising of trends is the rise in food-grain prices despite bountiful crops. Related to this is the unreasonable rise in prices after harvesting, the major reason behind these are the now regular increases in procurement prices of food-grains announced by the government. As political stakes have become higher, Governments though most of the eighties resorted to arbitrary increases in purchase prices. While many economists do not dispute the ethics and justification of these hikes, they object to the politics behind them. A stage has now been reached where the market discounts the price rises even before they occur because of their inevitability.

The priced situation is “extremely disturbing” and the current trends indicate that the inflation rate may be a double digit. The hike in oil prices will have cascading effects on all forms of transport and the prices of primary articles carried by it. The Gulf crisis will also make it more difficult to attain the year’s saving target of 21 per cent of GDP. There is a danger of remittances from the region as a whole falling with a dampening effect on achieving the saving target. The health of the economy will depend on the thrust areas – employment and agriculture, being accompanied by fiscal stability, reversing price inflation and correcting the growing pressure on the balance of payments.

Most do not expect any let up in this trend since rising expectations have become inherent in the economic system. For any let up in the price spiral to be possible, the inherent structural deficiencies in the economy and before that, in our life style, thinking, modus operandi and approach to national problems will have to be clearly defined and tackled. Otherwise the housewife’s monthly budget shall remain under heavy pressure, notwithstanding the empty promises of the ‘package of measures’ about to dawn and herald a new eta. While the vaunted ‘Consumer boom’ in the Indian market has not yet lost steam, if the price-line continues its ceaseless climb the future might not prove to be as rosy.

– Bipasha Mukherjee.

Essay on Secularism in India

Secularism in India

The secular character of the Indian polity was recognized and confirmed at the time of the inception of the country. The Constitution of India specifically lies down that no citizen of the country shall be discriminated against on the basis of community, caste or creed. It clearly states that all people shall have the freedom to practice the religion of their choice, without any interference from the State. The State shall not uphold any particular religion as its own.

In spite of the several divisive forces at work, India has been successful maintaining its secular character. A round of any city of India will convince one that secularism obtains in the land. One would come across temples, mosques, gurudwaras, and churches, nestling close to each other. People of different communities participate in each other’s religious festivals. They partake of the sheer joy that comes out of fellow-feeling and innocent camaraderie. They live together as equal citizens of a free India.

The reason for the country’s adopting a secular set-up for the people lies basically in the Indian culture. The Indian culture is, in fact, the composite product of experiences over the centuries on a soil which gave shelter to and nurtured a variety of communities.

No profession is barred to members of any community in India.

Another reason why the Indian Constitution framers decided to go in for secularism was that they wanted India to be a democratic State. The concept of democracy envisages freedom to the citizen in all their activities. So much so, the different types of freedom are made inviolable by having been enshrined in the Constitution under the heading Fundamental Rights. Any other character for the Indian polity other than the secular would have been incompatible with the concept of democracy.

Secularism can be further strengthened by the leaders taking upon themselves to instill feelings of brotherhood and friendliness among their respective communities. They should form peace committees who responsibility should be to see to it that the minor incidents are not misunderstood and do not flare up into riots.

– Bipasha Mukherjee.

Essay on Problem of Adult Illiteracy

Problem of Adult Illiteracy

Adult illiteracy is one of the major problems in our country. It is a real handicap in the economic and social development of a democratic country. In a democracy, the success of a government depends on the degree of education the masses have, for it is the masses that elect their representatives who form the government. If the masses are not educated, enlightened and aware of the happenings in their country, then there is every possibility of their being exploited. Therefore, adult literacy is very important to ensure the smooth function of democratic institutions.

For centuries, Indian masses have been steeped in ignorance, poverty and backwardness. They have no time for educating their young ones who join the work force at a tender age. In a country, where 70% of the population depends on agriculture, rural folks consider children, specially male, as helping hands to add to family income. Parents are not anxious to send them to school. In fact, education is considered an obstacle. A farmer’s son who earns a degree becomes unfit for farming and rural life. He prefers to live in the city, even if it is a life of abject poverty, squalor and slums. On the contrary, if he gets some training in his own trade, there is a chance of his doing better in life. Therefore, adult literacy programs have to be functional in character. They should be linked with the work and the life of the people so that they serve as a tool for rural development.

Television has proved to be a very effective audio-visual aid in promoting awareness among the uneducated. Programs on family planning, better farming techniques, child welfare, etc. are extremely beneficial and educative. Radio has also been rendering a very useful service to the illiterate masses by designing programs for the enlightenment.

Educational institutions have also started correspondence courses and informal courses which do not require any regular attendance. These are a boon to millions of students who had to discontinue their formal education owing to family constraints, lack of motivation or because of residing in remote areas. These have benefited individuals who look upon education as a life-time activity and may like to refresh their knowledge in an existing discipline or to acquire knowledge in a new area. This concept of distance education is a welcome step towards promoting adult literacy rate. However, correspondence courses should not be confined to preparing students for acquiring university degrees but should also provide education in agriculture, industrial trades and other special courses as would help them to increase production. Provision should be made for libraries in rural areas and for large scale book production at subsidized rates.

A child’s primary education begins at home in the lap of the mother. However, it is sad that in our country female education has not been paid attention it deserves. It has to be realized that women plays a vital role in creating a congenial environment for her family which is conducive to the all round development of the children. Female literacy has, therefore, to be given its due place. The government has realized the importance of this and is trying to take steps to educate women. Gandhiji rightly said that if the mother is educated, the entire family is educated.

Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission (NLM) in the field of adult education. This aims at imparting functional literacy to 8 crores illiterates in 15-35 age groups by 1995. There are 513 projects under Rural Functional Literacy projects of Central schemes besides 852 projects under State programs. About 628 voluntary agencies are also playing an important role in this regard. About 6.5 lakhs students are also participating in adult literacy programs. Programs for complete eradication of illiteracy have been taken up in various states. Kerala has taken the lead in the promotion of adult education programme.

Heroic attempts have been made to banish illiteracy, but with no significant results. Slogans like ‘Each one, teach one’ were coined, but were difficult to implement without public cooperation. The Education Commission had recommended a programme of compulsory national service to promote adult education. College teachers and students were required to make a sort of compulsory social service by spreading literacy during the summer vacation. Entrants to government services were required to make four or five persons literate. But compulsion like these cannot yield the same results as voluntary efforts. On the other hand, students who were not interested in making any personal contribution to this scheme started buying bogus certificates from the village officials.

Spreading literacy among the adults is not an easy task. They lack the drive, motivation and incentives which spur the young to learn. In order to sustain their interest and encourage them to enroll for these programs it is absolutely necessary to give consideration to their interests, timings, etc. Mere teaching of alphabets and arithmetic to the adults is awfully boring. They should be given lectures on what is called socially relevant issues like hygiene, health, general welfare, basic reading and writing skills, crafts, etc. Audio-visual aids should be used. They should be shown film on subjects who interest them. These steps will certainly kindle interest and make their lives happier, richer and healthier. Further for this new class of literates, new types of books will be required. Village library facilities will have to increase. They should be manned by trained library personnel to help and guide the adult students.

There is a need to open night schools especially for low income groups in industrial areas, where workers can resume their education despite being busy. Such steps are bound to produce results. Community television sets should be provided so that workers can get together in the evening and watch the national programs. These will help them to keep themselves up to date on the happenings in the political, social and economic front in the nation.

If we are serious about removing adult illiteracy from our country then it is high time the government machinery and voluntary agencies gear themselves to launch massive literacy drives all over the country. It is a stupendous task, yet not difficult to achieve. If the country has to carry on its march towards progress, then it has to ensure that its ambitious hundred per cent literacy drive meets with success. What other countries have done, India can also achieve. It is a long road, but we must traverse it.

– Bipasha Mukherjee.