Monthly Archives: June 2014

Short Paragraph on Importance of Games

Games

Games plays an important role in maintaining a healthy mind, body and soul. Games gives us a lot of exercises in forming our body as well as mind. The improvement of our body and mind keep away diseases. It gives us the ability to take defeat well.

A real sportsman will play a fair game always. He must have a cool and pleasant temper. Games foster a spirit of friendship and co-operation among the players. A sportsman must sacrifice his personal interest for the good of the team and take the game seriously. He will take keen interest to win. When a game becomes a profession, a real work of life, no longer remain a recreation to the players.

Therefore, games should be played for the sake of enjoyment, pleasure and recreation. If played in the right spirit, games become an important part of life – a better and healthy life.

-Banerjee.

Essay on Unemployment Problem in India

Unemployment is a major problem in India. The population grew by leaps and bounds and when economic disparities between one and the other assumed menacing proportion, the society could not assure everybody of work and a living. In countries like India, due to their underdeveloped economy and unexplored resources, no new avenues of employment could be found for the people.

When the British came and the colonial shackles found the people in India prisoners in their own land, only a handful of people found employment in the new set-up, while the majority languished in the dark abyss of poverty. The colonial exploitation in a backward feudal system might have made Great Britain very prosperous, but the Indians were denied even the barest means to keep them living like humans. As the majority of Indians lived in the villages and depended entirely on land, they had work only for about three months. There was slow growth of planned development and industrialization during the colonial rule which remains a major cause for the problem of umployment in India.

When, at last, the British were made to quit India in 1947 they left behind the specter of poverty and the problem of unemployment. The new rulers of India took quite a number of steps to create new avenues of employment. A process of industrialization started in India. Education too was reorganized so that it could cater for the new age of science and technology, as the old education was found to be losing its relevance in the evolving pattern of things.

But, in the meantime, the growth of population had reached such a proportion that all the new avenues of employment appeared too inadequate to accommodate all those waiting on the long queue that wound its way from one end of the land to the other. Those who were lucky enough to get employed felt rather baffled to find so many millions struggling to get a foothold at the subsistence level.

The growth of her national wealth of India since 1947 has been quite steady. But even then the poverty of the people and the problem of unemployment state us all in the face as menacingly as ever.

The big industries in and around the towns are not what we need. The first imperative is the total reorganization of village economy in all its sectors like agriculture and cottage industries in which every villager can be assured of employment all the year round. The process of regeneration should start working in the villages where poverty and unemployment of India have thrived untrammeled from time immemorial.

The millions of villagers in India should be given the new education and their faith in life should be restored so that they can consciously participate in the development programs and shape their own destiny inside the self-contained village units. If the villagers find employment in the villages they would never come to the towns for a living. Of course, in the meantime family planning should be strictly enforced to get rid of the population explosion which only adds to the problem of unemployment.

-Banerjee.

Short Essay on Poverty

Short Essay on Poverty

Once can be poor in many ways – in health in dress, in thought and in outlook. But poverty is usually to mean the state of being economically poor. One who lives in penury is called poor.

There may be various causes behind poverty, but in our modern world the main causes of poverty are found in the socio-economic system based on exploitation, discrimination, disparity and injustice.

Once when man was born naked and savage he was sustained by the bounties of nature. Then there was no question of discrimination, for all the animals, including man, equally shared the wealth of nature among themselves, and nature did not mind being exploited by them. But when man dissociated himself from the broader community of animals and built walls to keep nature away from his new home, he became ruthless in his exploitation of natural resources and in acquiring his economic prosperity at the expense of others.

The slaves and their masters, the feudal lords and their subjects and the exploiters and exploited found themselves separated by a yawning gulf. Obviously this relation led to violent struggles between the the rich and the poor; – but the process of impoverishment still persists, in spite of all our achievements and prosperity.

But what are the causes behind this poverty? As we find in India, it has too many people and too few developed resources. The highly developed or industrialized societies can afford population explosions, for they are able to pay for their massive imports of food from agricultural countries with their exports of manufactured goods, and also they have mechanized their own agriculture to produce more food. India cannot expect to feed its alarmingly growing population, for it has an overwhelmingly agricultural economy with yields amongst the lowest in the world. I

ndia produces food which is not enough even to feed two-thirds of its population. With an inadequate irrigation system and limited water-sources India fails to produce even that much when there are natural calamities like drought. Floods also destroy crops only too often, creating famine conditions in the process. Some seventy-five per cent of her people living in villages and depending on agriculture, India, under these circumstances, cannot but languish in poverty.

In our land of renunciation this poverty is made inseparable from religion and it makes the poor feel as though they are the sacred cows dedicated as sacrifices to God. Their suffering seems to be only a process of purification and their penury the result of renunciation. But this religious approach is just a cleaver design to cover up the age-old injustice. Poverty is the result of a social crime and its consequences inflict wounds that fester both in the mind and in the body, threatening the very existence of the society.

-Banerjee.

Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks

Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition and solidification of eroded materials of pre-existing rocks by natural agents like river, glacier, and wind at distant places below the river, lake, sea or oceans in layers. As these rocks are formed under water, so they are called Aqueous Rocks.

  1. These rocks are formed of different strata or layers.
  2. These rocks are soft compared to other types of rocks.
  3. As these rocks are not made of crystals, so they are non- crystalline.
  4. Sedimentary rocks contain fossils.
  5. These rocks are porous.
  6. Most of the rocks can be easily eroded.
  7. Rocks which are made of organic remains form the reserves of coal, petroleum and natural gas.

-Rahul Chopra.

Sher Shah Suri

Sher Shah Suri

Sher Shah Suri, also known as Sher Khan, ruled for five years only (1540-45 AD), but within this short period he proved his organizing capabilities and administrative genius.

He was the founder of Suri Dynasty in Delhi. He is remembered in history as a unique administrator.

The rise of Sher Shah Suri from the position of a humble jagirdar’s son to the ruler of one of the biggest empires of North India is a tale of courage and determination. After becoming the emperor, he annexed Malwa, Gwalior, Ranathambore, Marwar, Sind Punjab and Multan.

Central Administration:

Sher Shah Suri, as all great rulers of his times, concentrated military powers in his hand. He followed the administrative model of the Sultanate period and appointed four ministers viz.

  • Minister in charge finance
  • Minister in charge of army
  • Minister in charge of religious matter
  • Prime Minister.

Besides, there were ministers in charge of intelligence department. Spies were posted in towns, markets and all important locations. Arrangements were made to carry royal postages. However, ministers only carried out the ruler’s order.

Provincial Administration:

The provincial administration of Sher Shah Suri however, shows signs of de-centralization. In Bengal, the highest administrative division was Sarkar. It was looked after by administrative officers. Above all administrative officers were officers who had a small military force to look after the working of the administration and to preserve peace.

Sarkars, Parganas and Village:

Sher Shah’s empire from Delhi to Bihar was divided into 47 sarkars, which were further sub-divided into parganas. Each pargana consisted of some villages.

The village administration was generally in the hands of hereditary officers. Panchayats (assembly) officers employed in the sarkars and parganas were transferred on regular basis.

Financial Administration:

Sher Shah Suri had divided the sources of revenue of the state into central and local revenue.

Sher Shah was the first ruler who made an accurate survey of land within the empire. One third of the produce was fixed as the state share either in cash or in kind. Sher Shah believed in developing a direct relation with peasants and gave them Pattas. The Pattas were title deeds issued by the state specifying the state demand of revenue.

Dr. Srivastava has rightly pointed out that no other medieval ruler safeguarded in the interest of the peasants as Sher Shah.

Trade and Commerce:

A great deal of commercial prosperity was seen in trade and commerce as Sher Shah abolished all internal tariffs. Only entry tax and market duty were collected at fourteen posts. He constructed roads connecting important parts of his empire with the capital city.

Army:

Sher Shah adopted the system of maintaining a large army of soldiers and horses. The army consisted of both the Muslims and Hindus. There was no police system and soldiers, known locally as sepoys, maintained law and order.

Justice:

While delivering justice, Sher Shah did not discriminate between the rich and the poor. He was at the helm of judiciary and his court functioned primarily as an appellate court.

Religious Policy:

Though Sher Shah Suri was a Sunni Musalman in his personal life, he was tolerant towards subjects comprised of the Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists, Jains and others.

Death and Conclusion:

Sher Shah Suri died on 22nd day of May, 1545. He is still remembered in Indian History as a successful emperor who was tolerant towards all religion.

Dr. Tripathy had entitled Sher Shah as the precursor of Akbar in matters of administration and Rajput and religious policies.

External Readings

1. Sher Shah Suri in Wikipedia

-Rahul Chopra.

Brief Note on Mayurakshi Dam Project

Mayurakshi is a small project with a dam at Massanjore producing some power. It also has barrages on Mayurakshi river and its tributaries.

2.47 lakh hectares of land is being irrigated, out of which some is for Rabi irrigation.

Mayurakshi River is one the main rivers in West Bengal. The Massanjore Dam of Mayurakshi Porject was commissioned in 1955.

External Readings:

1. Mayurakshi River on Wikipedia

-Rahul Chopra.

Short note on Hirakud Project

Hirakud project is a major multi-purpose river valley porject in India. Hirakud dam has been constructed over the river Mahanadi. The length of the main section is 4.8 km long. The entire Hirakud dam is 25.8 km long.

The construction of Hirakud Dam began in 1948. The dam was started in 1957.

The Hirakud dam irrigates more than 2.5 lakh hectares of land, mainly in Baragarh area.

The water released from Hirakud is utilized in the delta of Mahanadi, by remodeling weirs and Mundali and Birupa Rivers.

The dam also support power stations.

The Hirakud project further helps to control flood control.

-Rahul Chopra.

Essay on Democracy

Introduction

Democracy refers to the system where the government is formed through the elected representatives of the people of the country. India is the largest democratic country in the world.

The word democracy has been derived from the combination of two Greek words ‘demos’ and `kratia’ that mean ‘people’ and ‘rule’ respectively. Thus, the etymological meaning of this word is – `rule of the people’.

Meaning of Democracy

Political thinkers have used the word ‘democracy’ at different times in different senses and for various purposes. Roughly it can be discussed in two ways – (i) in the wide sense and (ii) in the narrow sense.

Democracy in the wider sense:

In the wide sense, democracy means a social system in which there is equality in every sphere – social economic and political. In other words, democracy in the wide sense means a particular form of society, a form of state, a form of government, and even a particular economic system. As Prof. Giddings says, “A democracy may either be a form of government, a form of state, a form of society or a combination nation of all the three.” In the words of Burns, “Democracy, as an ideal, is a society not of similar persons, but of equals, in the sense that each is an integral and irreplaceable part of the whole.”

Again, the form of state which is based on equality is called a democratic state. In a democratic state the ultimate authority is vested in the hands of the people. In such a state, every person—rich or poor, high or low, man or man woman—has the right to take part in the affairs of the state.

According to the socialists, true democratic society is impossible unless economic equality is established. Prof. Laski has observed that political democracy is meaningless without economic democracy. Indeed, political democracy no use to a person if he is not free from want of the bare necessities of life.

a) Democracy in narrow sense:

In the narrow sense, democracy means democratic government. According to Abraham Lincoln, democracy is a ‘Government of the people, by the people and for the people’. But there is a great deal of controversy among the political scientists regarding the interpretation of this definition given by Lincoln.

a. By ‘Government of the people’ is generally meant spontaneous and natural allegiance of the people to the government. But according to Sweezy, “Government of the people is government which emanates from and forms an inseparable part of the people”.

b. Again, ‘Government by the people‘ implies people’s participation in running the government. Professor Seely defines democracy as a government in which everyone has a share. But due to a large population it is impossible for all to participate directly in the government. So, people rule the country indirectly through their elected representatives. Moreover, every individual of the country can never be regarded as eligible to take part in the government. Every country disallows lunatics, criminals, bankrupts and minors from participation on in the government. So, democracy means rule of the majority. It may be said after Dicey that a government may be called democratic if “Government body is a comparatively large fraction of the entire nation.” In the opinion of Bryce, though the authority is vested in the hands of all the people in a democratic government, in reality it turns out to be the rule of the majority.

c. ‘Government for the people‘ stipulates that democratic government serves the interests of all sections of the people. Such a government does not work for the interests of any particular person, group or class. Promotion of the general welfare is the primary duty of such a government.

Modern Concept and definition of Democracy

Recently, Joseph Schumpeter, Robert Dahl, G.C. Field, Plamenatz, Karl Popper and others have given a modern definition of democracy.

Schumpter says, democracy is the system of electing representatives by democratic method.

But to Robert Dahl, democratic method is a process of compromise among different interest-groups.

Again, G.C. Field has said, in this form of government, people are able to influence actively the process of decision-making of the government.

Almost a similar definition has been given by Plamenataz. In his view, democracy is that form of Government which consists of persons freely elected by the governed and which remains responsible to them.

But Popper does not consider rule of the people or the majority of the people to be democracy. In his opinion, democracy is the combination of such institutions though which the people can control the rulers and remove them from power, if necessary.

Importance of Democracy in India

In India, democracy is described as a ‘government based on public opinion’.

For, the views, hopes and aspirations, likes and dislikes of the citizens of India are expressed through it.

So, the government in India has no power to disregard the public opinion. The government has always to remain alert that no law is made against the public opinion. Passing any bill against public interest automatically leads to unfavorable public opinion. As a result, defeat of the government in power becomes inevitable.

So, in a democratic country like India, special importance is given on public opinion.

Conclusion

Democracy may be successful through discussions and mutual understanding between the government and the opposition party, i.e. between the majority and the minority. Hence, Barker has described democracy as a system of government by discussion.

-Rahul Chopra.

Pallavas Art and Architecture

Pallavas Art and Architecture

The temples built by the Pallava rulers are the best specimens of the Dravidian art and architecture.

The Pallava Art could be divided into four styles according to its evolution viz.

  • Mahendra style,
  • Mahamalla or Narasimha Style,
  • Rajsingha or Narasimha-II style and
  • Aparajita Style.

Magnificent rock cut temples and structural shrines were made during the times of the Pallavas. The rock cut architecture includes two types of shrines Mandapas viz. open pavilion and Rathas viz. monolithic shrines carved out of a single boulder on the seashore Rathas are square at base but pyramidal in shape. It resembles Buddhist chaityas viharas.

Narsimhavarman pioneered the art of making temples in the shape of chariots.

The shore temple of Mahabalipuram resembles the Dharmaraja Ratha in structure.

The Kailashnath Temple of Mahabalipuram built during the times of Narasimhagupta was also known as the seven pagodas.

The Tripurantakeshwar and Airavatesvara temple at Kanchi and Mukteswar temple are some of the finest examples of the rock art architecture pioneered by Mahendra Varman.

Narasimhavarman pioneered the art of making temples in the shape of chariots.

The Pallava art was influenced by the Amaravati School of sculpture. This art has its influence on the architecture of Vistnu temple at Angkorvat in the south East Asia.

-Rahul Chopra.

Complete Essay on Liberty

Meaning of liberty:

In common parlance, liberty is supposed to mean unrestrained freedom to do whatever one likes. But uncontrolled liberty may lead to social disorder. Thus, a sense of restraint lies in the nature of liberty.

But in a civilized society there cannot be any such thing as absolute or uncontrolled liberty, wholly freed from restraint, for, that would lead to anarchy and disorder.

The state creates an atmosphere of liberty through its laws. But, unlimited liberty is not considered to be real liberty at all. As Barker remarks”, – liberty in the state, or legal liberty, is never the absolute liberty of each, but always the qualified liberty of all. Liberty within the state is thus a relative and regulated liberty”. So, liberty can be realized only by living in the state. In this sense liberty can be identified as a legal concept.

But, according to the Marxists, liberty is the all-round development of man’s ability and merit. So, the liberty supposed to exist in the capitalist society cannot be the liberty of the majority of the working class people; it is the liberty of the small number of owners of the means of production.

Different Forms of Liberty

The political scientists have studied the word ‘liberty’ from different perspectives. As a result, different forms of liberty are found to exist. The important forms are:

Individual and national liberty:

In ancient times, the Greeks, particularly, the Athenians, used to classify liberty into two categories:

  1. (i) Personal and
  2. (ii) Community-based liberty.

By personal liberty they wanted to mean absence of all types of restraints on the external behaviour of individuals. What they used to mean by community-based liberty is now regarded as national liberty which implies absence of restraints from external or foreign forces.

Natural liberty: In the pre-political stage people living in a natural environment used to enjoy absolute liberty of doing whatever they liked. This absolute liberty is now called natural liberty. Rousseau was the main exponent of this theory of liberty. According to him, man is born free, but everywhere he finds himself in chain. Subsequently, the anarchists propagated the theory of the abolition of the state for the establishment of this form of liberty.

Social liberty:

The liberty that is recognized by social conscience, and protected and controlled by social rules is called social liberty. But as the idea of social conscience and the principles of justice are indistinct, indefinite and relative, the concept of such liberty is also bound to be indistinct, indefinite and relative. This is why nobody is ready to recognize such liberty today.

Legal liberty:

The concept of legal liberty is a subject-matter of political science. Legal liberty means the kind of liberty which is recognized, ensured, protected and controlled by state. The exponents of this form of liberty think that liberty cannot be unrestricted. In the greater collective interests of the society, the state imposes some restrictions on the liberty of each through law. Such form of liberty is definite, distinct and well-regulated in nature.

Legal liberty can be classified into three groups:

  • (i) Individual or Civil liberty,
  • (ii) Political liberty and
  • (iii) Economic liberty.

a) Civil liberty:

Personal or civil liberty means enjoyment of those rights by which individuals are able to develop their personalities fully. Among these, the most important are the right to freedom of thought, speech and expression, right to form union or associations, right to personal property and religion, right to form family and right to make contract etc. If this liberty is not properly recognized and protected by the state, the latent talents of the individual cannot be developed.

b) Political liberty:

Political liberty means the right to participate in the formation of government directly or indirectly and the right to regulate the government. The right to be elected, right to vote and right to constructive criticism of the government activities etc. are included in political liberty. The votaries of liberal democracy think that without the recognition of political liberty, democracy is bound to fail.

c) Economic liberty:

Economic liberty means the right to get relief from poverty and scarcity. The right to be engaged in work on the basis of merit and eligibility, right to get allowances in old age and unemployment, right to be nursed by the state during the stage of inability, the right to share in the determination of wages etc. constitute the basic elements of economic liberty. The modern political scientists like Laski, Barker and the Marxists in general believe that without economic liberty other liberties become meaningless.

Conclusion

Age after age, the ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity has inspired men to establish the democratic social system. But, owing to the divergent approaches to the study of the ideal, it is liberty which has now become the most debatable concept. As the French philosopher Montesquieu comments, no other concept has borne such a variety of significance and produced such diverse reactions in human minds as the concept of liberty.

-Rahul Chopra.