Unemployment is a major problem in India. The population grew by leaps and bounds and when economic disparities between one and the other assumed menacing proportion, the society could not assure everybody of work and a living. In countries like India, due to their underdeveloped economy and unexplored resources, no new avenues of employment could be found for the people.
When the British came and the colonial shackles found the people in India prisoners in their own land, only a handful of people found employment in the new set-up, while the majority languished in the dark abyss of poverty. The colonial exploitation in a backward feudal system might have made Great Britain very prosperous, but the Indians were denied even the barest means to keep them living like humans. As the majority of Indians lived in the villages and depended entirely on land, they had work only for about three months. There was slow growth of planned development and industrialization during the colonial rule which remains a major cause for the problem of umployment in India.
When, at last, the British were made to quit India in 1947 they left behind the specter of poverty and the problem of unemployment. The new rulers of India took quite a number of steps to create new avenues of employment. A process of industrialization started in India. Education too was reorganized so that it could cater for the new age of science and technology, as the old education was found to be losing its relevance in the evolving pattern of things.
But, in the meantime, the growth of population had reached such a proportion that all the new avenues of employment appeared too inadequate to accommodate all those waiting on the long queue that wound its way from one end of the land to the other. Those who were lucky enough to get employed felt rather baffled to find so many millions struggling to get a foothold at the subsistence level.
The growth of her national wealth of India since 1947 has been quite steady. But even then the poverty of the people and the problem of unemployment state us all in the face as menacingly as ever.
The big industries in and around the towns are not what we need. The first imperative is the total reorganization of village economy in all its sectors like agriculture and cottage industries in which every villager can be assured of employment all the year round. The process of regeneration should start working in the villages where poverty and unemployment of India have thrived untrammeled from time immemorial.
The millions of villagers in India should be given the new education and their faith in life should be restored so that they can consciously participate in the development programs and shape their own destiny inside the self-contained village units. If the villagers find employment in the villages they would never come to the towns for a living. Of course, in the meantime family planning should be strictly enforced to get rid of the population explosion which only adds to the problem of unemployment.