Sources of Air Pollution in India

Sources of Air Pollution in India

Sources of Air Pollution in India are

  1. Gaseous emissions from automobile exhausts are important sources of air pollution in India. The automobiles emit un-burnt hydrocarbons CO, NO2 and lead oxide.
  2. Industrial chimney wastes are responsible for massive air pollution in India. Metallurgical plants, smelters, leather, synthetic rubber, chemicals and similar other industries pollute local atmospheric air.
  3. Coal burning fly ash, SO2, CO, NO2 are the harmful pollutants released from thermal power plants,
  4. Harmful substances like pesticides, dust particles spread through the agricultural fields.
  5. Dust particles that are released from cement factories, Coal based thermal plants, etc. causes substantial air pollution.

-Rahul Chopra.

Brief note on Characteristics of Igneous Rocks

Characteristics of Igneous Rocks

1. Igneous rocks are made of minerals integrated with each other.

2. These rocks are usually crystalline.

3. Igneous Rocks are hard.

4. They do not have layers or strata.

5. They do not contain fossils.

6. Often igneous rocks penetrate into the local rocks.

-Rahul Chopra.

Coal Producing States in India

Coal Producing States in India

The coal producing states (along with the districts) in India are given below:

1. Jharkhand: Dhanbad, Hazaribagh, Bokaro, Palamau, Pakur, Dumka, Deoghar, Daltonganj, Ramgar, Karanpura, Jharia, etc. Jharia of Dhanbad district is famous for high quality bituminous coal. Almost entire cooking coal of India is raised in Jharia.

2. Madhya Pradesh: Mohapani, Pench valley, Bisrampur, Lakhanpur, Jhilimili, Umaria, Sohagpur, etc.

3. Chhatishgarh: Korba, Chirimiri, etc.

4. West Bengal: Raniganj (oldest field, 1774) and Asansol.

5. Andhra Pradesh: Singareni, Tandoor and Kothagudem.

6. Maharashtra: Chandrapur, Wardha, Ballarpur and Kamptee.

7. Orissa: Talcher and Rampur.

8. Uttar Pradesh: Singrauli.

9. Meghalaya: Daranggiri, Chempunji and Langrin.

10. Assam: Makum and Nazira.

11. Arunachal Pradesh: Namchick-Namphuk (Changlang district).

-Rahul Chopra.

Essay on Equality


Like liberty the concept of equality, too, has inspired men to revolt against injustice and misrule.

According to Barker, “Equality is a protean notion: it changes its shape and assumes new forms with a ready facility”.

Meaning of Equality

Apparently, equality means that all the equal. But in Political Science, as Laski observes, equality does not mean total lack of distinction or sameness. According to him equality means (i) the absence of special privilege and (ii) provision for adequate opportunities to all. The first one is the negative aspect while the second one is the positive aspect of equality.

Men are different in their demands, capacities and needs. Hence Laski says that so long as men continue to be different in their wants, capacities and needs, there cannot be total similarity in their treatment. A mason cannot be placed on the same footing as an engineer or doctor. If both are accorded the same status or equal recognition, talents will not be rewarded and the progress of society will be retarded. Thus, it becomes quite evident from an analysis of the definition of equality that equality does not mean equal or identical treatment. As men differ in their capacities, skills and power, they can never claim equal treatment or recognition from the state or society.

Nature  of Equality

Equality in the negative sense:

Prof. Laski has determined the definition and nature of equality from both the negative and the positive aspects. In the negative sense, equality means the absence of discrimination on ground of religion, race, caste, wealth, sex etc. for, such discrimination’s obstruct the development of the latent talents of the individual. For example, equality would mean that there must be equality of opportunity for everybody in the matter of appointment to a government post according to his merit and qualifications. Thus, appointment to a post on the hereditary basis is repugnant to the principle of equality.

However, though equality would demand the existence of equality of opportunity in the matter of appointment on the basis of merit and qualification for all – irrespective of men or women, discrimination may reasonably be permissible in certain special cases. For example women may be considered to be better fitted for the job of a nurse while men may be preferred to women for employment in the police force or the army. Such type of appointment is not opposed to the principle of equality.

Equality in the positive sense:

In the positive sense equality means provision for ‘adequate opportunities.’ But the phrase ‘adequate opportunities’ does not mean ‘equal opportunities.’ As the needs and demands of the individuals and the efforts made by them are not identical, they require different types of opportunity for the development of their personality. For this reason Ben and Peters commented that positive equality signifies appropriate opportunities for self-development to each citizen.

By equality Barker also does not mean identical treatment. According to Barker, identical treatment creates hindrances for free development of the individual’s talent. Barker elaborates his argument with an example. All the competitors are arranged in a level line at the starting of the race that lies ahead. Likewise, with equal conditions guaranteed by the state to each for making the best of himself, all the individuals have to start from the level line for the development of their personality.

Equality, thus, is the start, not the finish. For, everybody cannot make the best use of the conditions provided to him. In this case, if everybody is given equal status or recognition, it will certainly be incompatible with the principle of equality.

The Marxist point of view:

The Marxists analyze equality from a completely different angle. By equality Marx never meant leveling down the distinct life and needs of the individual. According to him, equality means abolition of class division from the womb of the society. It implies four things:

  • (i) After the destruction of capitalism all sections of the working class people will be free.
  • (ii) Private property will disappear.
  • (iii) Everyone will do his work according to his ability and every one will get proper wages according to the nature of his work.
  • (iv) To work according to one’s ability will be regarded as one’s duty. The Marxists argue that in a class-divided society, establishment of real equality is an impossible task.

Different Forms of Equality

Equality is a multidimensional concept. Naturally it has many forms. However, for the sake of clarity we can classify equality into four categories:

Natural equality:The protagonists of natural equality think that ‘Men are born, and always continue, free and equal in respect of their rights’. The Stoic philosophers of the ancient Greece, the Roman thinkers like Cicero and Polybious, the Christian fathers of the later period and Rousseau laid special emphasis on such equality.

Social equality: Social equality means equality between man and man in the social sphere. When no discrimination is made between man and man on such grounds as religion, race, caste, birth, wealth and power, it is called social equality. According to Barker, the contents of social equality are equality of culture and economic equality. Such equality was non-existent in the slave and the feudal societies. But, with the establishment of the capitalist society, the concept of social equality spread.

Legal equality: The exponents of liberal democracy gave a special focus on the establishment of legal equality in the 19th and 20th century. Legal equality implies two things:

  • (i) Equality before the law and
  • (ii) Right to equal protection of law.

Legal equality can be divided into three categories:

  • (a) Personal equality,
  • (b) Political equality and
  • (c) Economic equality.

a) Personal equality: When all the individuals are able to enjoy equal opportunities of social rights, it is called personal equality.

b) Political equality: Political equality implies the right to equal participation of all citizens in the process of formation and management of the government. The concept stands against artificial distinctions among the citizen based on sex, class, caste, religion etc. The concrete expression of political equality is the conferment on all adult citizens of the right to take part in the election, the right to petition against the government and the equal right to criticize governmental activities without any distinction of religion, race, caste, sex, birth and wealth.

c) Economic equality: The bourgeois theorists regard the equal right to income and wealth as economic equality. But such right brings about inequality rather than equality in the economic sphere. Laski opines that economic equality means equality in economic power which implies something more than approximate equality of wealth. By economic equality he means availability of adequate economic opportunities to all.

International equality: When the principle of equality is applied to the international society, it is called international equality. If we recognize equal status of all nation-states irrespective of their size, military and economic power, we can establish this type of equality.

– Rahul Chopra.

Essay on Human Rights

What is Human Rights?

Human rights are those rights to which an individual is entitled by virtue of his status as a human being.

Human rights, according to Prof. Durgadas Basu, are those basic rights which an individual, as a member of the human family, enjoys against the state or against any other governmental authority.

The United Nations’ Centre for Human Rights has identified as human rights those rights which are ‘inherent in our nature’ and without which we cannot live as human being.

According to Dr. Upendra Baxi, human rights are ‘Rights of human species’. The Protection of Human Rights Act passed by the Indian Parliament (1993) defines human rights as those rights which are guaranteed by the constitution of India or included in International Covenant. The important human rights are, according to the Act, right to life, liberty, equality and right to dignity which are enforceable by Indian judiciary.

The government of India has set up a National Human Rights Commission since 1993 in order to promote awareness of these rights.

Importance of Human Rights

From time to time philosophers, politicians, social reformers, socialists and others had stressed the importance of human rights. The UN declaration on Human Rights in December, 1948 highlights the need of human rights. This declaration ensures recognition of inborn status and inalienable rights of all members of human species.

The ideals like liberty, justice and world peace without human rights have no value. Violation of human rights and the brutal activities that were committed earlier are nothing but a serious jolt to human civilisation. So, to pay respect to human values, the ‘Universal Declaration’ has proposed to establish a world, where people can freely express their views and have a liberty of belief, free from fear and poverty. Human rights must be protected by laws, so that people do not find themselves constrained to rise in revolt against exploitation and oppression.

Nature of Human Rights

The actual nature of human rights will be clear and distinct only after analysis of the definitions of human rights. The nature of human rights can be discussed under the following aspects:

1. Universality: A man can enjoy human rights by virtue of his status as human being. All categories of people are entitled to enjoy human rights. So, the Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations in 1948 identified human rights as ‘universal’.

2. Inalienability: By nature human rights are inalienable. So, men cannot hand over these rights to somebody else. Even other individuals have no right to snatch away or destroy such rights. But it is true that all sections of people can never enjoy human rights equally. An honest man is entitled to enjoy all human rights but a criminal or a convicted person cannot claim such rights.

3. Natural Rights: Human rights may be called natural rights in the sense that people acquire these rights from the very inception of their birth. No one delivers those rights to men.

4. Eternal: The duty of every state is to protect and ensure right of the human beings through laws. But in practice, we notice that the state generally tends to interfere unduly with, instead of ensuring, proper enjoyment of rights. Against this interference of the state, people want to establish human rights as eternal right. This demand appears to be rational when rights of the individuals are usually not recognized by the laws of the state. Jack Donnelly beautifully represents the nature’ of human rights by an example. According to him, it may not be always possible to arrest a thief or recover a stolen car. But for this we cannot claim that the owner of the car has lost his ownership right. Similarly, one’s human rights will continue to be one’s rights even after all they are violated or taken away.

5. Inter-relation with duties: The enjoyment of one’s human rights depends on how others perform their duties. Three types of duties are considered essential for the fullest enjoyment of human rights. These are:

  • The duty of not depriving others,
  • The duty to protect others from deprivation, and
  • The duty not to assist in the act of deprivation.

Human rights can be protected if individuals, responsible nations, exploitative companies and others perform the above-mentioned three duties. Thus, man’s rights to be human depend on the performance of duties by the other men and the government.

– Rahul Chopra

Importance of Human Rights

The importance of Human Rights are given below in points:

  1. Human unit rights are rights of the individuals or groups consisting of individuals;
  2. Individuals or groups in society enforce these rights in favour of or against the state;
  3. There rights are inalienable and people enjoy these rights from their very birth;
  4. In fields of life, human rights have been recognized as a permanent, universal and legal concept;
  5. Recognition of human rights is an elementary condition for proper implementation of the noble ideals like liberty, equality, fraternity and dignity of human life;
  6. These rights are of extreme importance for the survival of the individual as a human being;
  7. Recognition and enforcement of human rights by the society and the state in all spheres are of utmost importance. Of the rights that are now included as human rights, special mention may be made of the rights to life, liberty, property, equality before the law, privacy, fair trial, safeguards against torture, slavery and other forms of degrading practices, protection of family and minorities, free expression, information, association, assembly, movement, religion, conscience and culture, work and social security, franchise, participation in government, sharing in the scientific progress etc.

– Rahul Chopra.

Extrusive and Intrusive Igneous Rocks

Extrusive and Intrusive Igneous Rocks

Extrusive Igneous Rock:

When magma gushes out on the earth’s surface, it comes in contact with air and cools and solidifies very fast to form Extrusive Igneous Rocks. They are also called Volcanic Rocks as they come out on the earth’s surface through either volcanic or fissure eruptions. As these rocks cool rapidly they become fine grained and non crystalline, e.g., basalt, rhyolite, andesite. The Deccan Trap in Gujarat and Maharashtra and Rajmahal hills of Jharkhand are made of basalt rocks.

Extrusive rocks are further subdivided into:

  1. Lava Rock: Either through volcanic or fissure eruptions, in the earth’s crust lava comes in contact with air and cools as well as solidifies rapidly. Most of the extrusive rocks are of this type, e.g., basalt.
  2. Pyroclastic Rock: Greek word ‘Pyro’ means ‘fire ‘and `klastos’ means ‘broken pieces’. Solidification of lava, along with the fragments ejected during previous eruption— like ash, cinder and other materials of fiery origin that are blown off from the vent and the crater of the volcano, forms rocks which are called Pyroclastic Rocks, e.g., tuff.

Intrusive Igneous Rocks:

Often magma solidifies at some depth in the earth’s crust to form Intrusive Igneous Rocks.

Intrusive Igneous rocks are further subdivided into:

  1. Plutonic Rocks: These rocks are named after ‘Pluto’, the ancient Roman God of the underworld. These rocks are formed by the solidification of magma at a great depth in the earth’s crust where in the absence of air cooling is very slow. Therefore, large crystals are formed. Hence, Plutonic rocks are also called crystalline rocks. e.g., granite, gabbro. Plenty of granites are found in Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand and in Purulia district of West Bengal.
  2. Hypabyssal Rocks: When magma solidifies at shallow depth in the earth’s crust, Hypabyssal Rocks are formed. In the presence of little air, cooling is moderate. So, medium size crystals are formed. Hence, these rocks are also called semi crystalline rocks e.g., dolerite, porphyry. Dolerite is found in the Singbhum district of Jharkhand and in some parts of South India.

– Rahul Chopra.

Essay on Importance of Leisure

Essay on Importance of Leisure

Leisure is the spare time when one has nothing specific to do, no work to occupy his time and, hence, one is not in a hurry.

Leisure is important for every person. It gives him the respite from the monotony and drudgery of routine duties that occupy the greater part of our time. There is not even one among us who does not feel relaxed and happy on Sundays and holidays. When there is no compulsion, we are more free and less reluctant to use our time in accordance with our inclinations.

There are people who would like to idle away their time on holidays, for they find their leisure too short to be spent o anything more meaningful than yawning, dozing, enjoying siesta, gossiping and playing cards. This way they get only more bored and when they get back to their work they are anything but refreshed. There are still others who retire into a solitary nook and mope about brooding on their frustrating experiences or on the monotony of their routine work. This too is not the right way of using the leisure, for its aim is not to become willing prey to boredom. The importance of leisure lies in overcoming the sickening influences of boredom.

Often the students are found revising their lessons, the others looking through their office files at their leisure, for they think they should utilize their free time. The don’t understand the importance of leisure. It’s a pity they do not know what to do with their leisure. You should recharge yourself during the leisure time.

What then should one do at his leisure? It depends on the length of time. If the leisure is but of a few hours, or a day or two, it is not possible to make plans for spending it in some way or other. For example, we cannot think of using the leisure between evening when we get back home and the time when we usually go to bed. Even for Sundays we cannot make much of a plan, for the Mondays are always there staring us in the face.

We can think of going sight-seeing in the countryside. We should understand the importance of listening to the birds’ songs and lying down in the green field.

However, for a day or two it is difficult to find the patch of green where we can lie down under the caressing, cool shades of trees in the neighborhood. So it is better to stay where we are and to spend our day with the family and friends. We can even look beyond our cramped existence and organize community programs for amusements and entertainments.

But when we have real vacations we can plan our leisure more fruitfully. We can go holidaying and spend days together in the midst of nature – relaxing, enjoying and renewing our relationship with our estranged Mother. As there is little hurry, we can explore all the avenues of happiness and thus get away from the sickening worries of our everyday life. We can even choose to get ourselves involved in some rewarding pursuits, making life more meaningful. This way leisure can be used to leave us happier and richer, not only relaxed and refreshed.

– Banerjee.

Paragraph on Social Justice in India

Social Justice in India

The concept of social justice is a relative concept.

In a broader sense, social justice means not only equality before law,’ equal protection of law and independence of the judiciary from the executive and the legislature, but also denotes protection of the rights of the minority groups, eradication of poverty, illiteracy, unemployment and backwardness. The modern concept of justice is ‘proper and fair coordination between the interests of the individuals or groups and the broader interests of the society’.

The state can impose reasonable restrictions on the rights of the individuals for the common interest of the society. Such restrictions do not ignore the principles of justice; they rather strengthen social justice. For example, we can mention the policy of ‘reservation’ or ‘protective discrimination’ in India. In pursuance of this policy, the state has made certain special provisions for the advancement of the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes; the Anglo-Indian community; other socially and educationally backward classes, women and children. The main objective of such discrimination is to uplift the backward communities and make them equal with the other sections of the Indian people. The above policy of reservation is not detrimental but complementary to equality.

But the Marxists think otherwise. According to them, the so-called slogan of ‘social justice’ is nothing but a deceptive trick. Raising this slogan, the bourgeois theoreticians’ only attempt to maintain the status-quo of the bourgeois society which is marked by gross inequalities and injustices.

– Rahul Chopra.