Albert Einstein was a German-born Scientist who lived from 1879 to 1955. He is considered to be the most famous and the most successful Scientist of our time. His work in Theoretical Physics and his theories of Relativity have changed our understanding of the scientific world. Most of the research work that happens in Physics today is based on the theories and the work of Einstein. Both by popular and scientific opinion, Einstein is also considered the most genius individual of our times. But apart from his intellectual genius he was also a person with great emotional, spiritual and humane understanding of the world.
He was working at a young age in a Swiss patent office in the city of Bern. Because he was a genius even while working on a mechanical job he could imagine most of his famous theories in his mind. Most Scientists have to work for long hours in specialized science laboratories and even then they do not understand the mysteries of science. But Einstein through the power of imagination, creativity and intelligence was able to formulate his theories in his mind without the use of complicated machinery and apparatus.
Before Einstein the world was governed by Newtonian World View of Physics. In this the world was understood as made up of absolutes. Gravity, Time, Weight, Length, Light, Speed, etc. were considered parameters of the physical world that were absolute, which means they would be the same irrespective of who measured them and irrespective of the circumstances.
Theory of General and Special Relativity
Einstein is most famous for his work on Relativity. His theories of Relativity state that all these parameters of the physical world are not absolutes. Rather they change with changing circumstances and hence they are relative to the circumstances and situations under which they are measured. Time, Length, Weight, Speed, Gravity, etc. change with the change in measuring circumstances. The only absolute as per Relativity is the Speed of Light. Everything else is relative.
Einstein was awarded the Noble Prize in Physics in 1921 for his work on the Photoelectric effect.