Biodiversity means the presence of diverse biological life forms. The different types of plant, animal marine life that exist in a region and the ecosystems supporting their existence make up the biodiversity of that region.
Biodiversity is affected by 3 main factors.
- Genetics – how the evolution of a particular species takes place.
- Ecosystem- how the natural relief of the region affect the biology.
- Various species of life forms- including microorganisms, plants, animals etc.
India is a vast country covering an area of and multiple geographical relief and habitats. Starting from the snow mountains of Himalayas to the Rainforests in the Western Ghats, Andaman and Assam, a multiplicity of habitats exists. Sundarbans forests in the East, Gangetic plains in the centre, peninsular plateau and the Thar Desert are some of the other rich habitats that support a diverse life.
Vegetation accordingly ranges from the mangroves of the coast to the Chinars of Kashmir, with Sal, Teak, Neem Babul and Deodars forming a rich variety. The spices gardens too have been an attractive feature in the vegetation.
Animal life is equally divers with some of the finest species still in existence and thriving while others endangered and in need of protection. The Royal Bengal Tiger is one such endangered species. It is found in the central plains and needs a lot of roaming space. Rhinoceros is found in the North Eastern state of Assam, Camels, Blackbuck and Gazelles in the arid regions and deserts. The zoologists from around the world come to study the endangered Indian Dolphins in Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers and the Olive Ridley Turtles on the coasts of Odisha. Elephants, Leopards, Asiatic Lion, Cobra, and Peacock are some animal species found in India which are a matter of pride for any Indian Zoologist.
Also in recognition of this biodiversity the Government of India is considering the lactobacillus debrueckii to be declared as the national microbe of India.
India is a treasure trove of biodiverse life forms. However, due to reckless growth of human population, many of these species are under threat of extinction. We must make all efforts to preserve the wildlife that nature has bountifully bestowed on this land.