Category Archives: History

Causes of Decline of Harappan Civilization

The Harappa civilization was not built in a day and it was not destroyed in one day or for one reason. Scholars have come forth with several conjectures to explain the decline of Harappan Civilization.

  1. Due to change in the climatic condition, the area lost fertil­ity and people were compelled to move else where.
  2. Constant use of firewood for brick manufacture caused deforestation and minimized the rainfall.
  3. The change of course of the river Indus transformed it into a tract of sand and affected the fertility.
  4. Natural calamities could have adversely affected the normal life.
  5. Some scholars are of opinion that the Harappan civilization suffered a decline due to attacks by the hostile tribes.

By Amit Agarwal

Features of Harappa Civilization

Features of Harappan Civilization

Urban Civilization:

Presents-day Pakistan’s Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, Rajasthan’s Kalibangan, and Gujarat’s Lothal have shown as some signs of urban civilization. In almost every city, there were two types of areas – high and low. The high areas were known as citadel. In some cities the citadel areas were surrounded by walls. The cities were well-planned and buildings were made of burnt bricks. Some of the buildings were two storied, walls were smooth, the rooms were wide and there were windows, drainpipe, underground sewerage and large baths. The entire city was planned.

The special feature of this civilization was very large bathroom and very big storehouse for grains. In brief, we can take that there were centralised municipal system.

Harappan Religion:

From the images and idols discovered, some seem to be the images of god and goddesses. Some female images, one-horned wale image surrounded on all sides by the beasts have been found. Perhaps, the Harappan people also worshipped God Pasupati, i.e., Shiva. Some believe that the people were tree worshippers.


They used to wear robes made of cotton and silk. Male and female both used ornaments.

Social Class:

From town planning of Harappa, it can be pre­sumed that there was class difference in the city life. Big build­ings, palaces, two-room dwelling houses were there. There were rich, middle-class people and poor people. Even it can be said that slaves were also there.

Economic Condition:

Their principal profession of Harappan people was agri­culture. They used to produce paddy and other eatable grains. They were good traders and it has been proved that they had busi­ness relationship with countries outside India. The trade with out­side countries was practiced through exchange of materials. From the findings it has been proved that export trade was done through sea or road route.

By Amit Agarwal

Stone Age in India


India civilization is very old. This old civilization has come through evolutions and reached the present stage. We have in hand some very valuable archaeological samples of very ancient Indian civilization from the excavation made in different places of India. Archaeologists have analyzed the specialties of these samples and divided old Indian civilization in three different stages.

Old Stone Age :

 It is very difficult to ascertain the exact time period of this civilization. It was in existence during 4,00,000 B.C. to 2,00,000 B.C.  In Swan valley of Pakistan and Madras (Chennai) of Deccan, some samples of Old Stone Age have been found. Archaeologists have termed them as Swan culture and Madresian culture. In this age, men did not know agriculture or use of fire. They lived in caves or near the rivers. Raw meat of wild animals and fruits were their diet. They used rough stove weapons to protect themselves. Negritos men were more in number at that time.

New Stone Age:

Last of the archaeological division was new Stone Age. Nomadic men started building their own house to live in. Men learned agriculture and started using fire. Their lives improved. But then, the main weapon was made of stone. They knew the art of making such weapons sharper. From 6000 to 2000 B.C. this new Stone Age was in existence. This age’s civilization was discovered in Mehergarh at present in Baluchistan. Besides Mehergarh, in Koeta valley, Kashmir, Andhra and Karnataka samples of new Stone Age have been found. Gordon Child has termed this age as revolution of New Stone age.

After that men learned the use of copper and urban civiliza­tion developed. The period before this age was prehistoric age and this age came to be known as historic age.

Mehergarh Civilization

In Indian subcontinent, Mehergarh was the main centre of new Stone Age. On the banks of Bolan river in Baluchistan, this civilization had a span of 500 acres of land. From this archaeologi­cal centre, we get the idea of development of village in new Stone Age. It has been proved that there was a village during 7000-5000 B.C. The houses were built by sun-dried bricks. It has also been proved that men of this era knew cultivation and animal husbandry. They were hunters. They developed the system of room heating.

Historians think that in the 2nd stage of Mehergarh civiliza­tion, people knew cotton cultivation and copper casting. They also developed potters, wheels and knew the use of burnt bricks for construction of buildings etc.

Later on, very big rooms were constructed. Side by side other developments took place. From this Mehergarh civilization, it has been proved that before the Aryan invasion there was a very high standard of civilization in India.

Also read, Harappan Civilization

By Amit Agarwal

Short essay on 1983 World Cup Final

1983 World Cup Final

June, 25, 1983 is the most memorable day in the history of Indian cricket. It was on this day that the Indian cricket team under the captaincy of Kapil Dev won the Prudential World Cup. India became the world champions in cricket.

Everybody’s hot favorites were Clive Lloyd’s West Indies. They were on a hat-trick to win the Cup. Their chance of winning the final match at Lords became bright when India was all out for only 183 runs. The West Indies came in to bat and took the match lightly. Sandhu struck first for India when he had Greenidge leg before. Richards attacked Indian bowling but was soon dismissed. Kapil Dev took the brilliant catch off the bowling of Madanlal. Now the Indians became optimistic and fought back desperately. As a result, there was a collapse in the West Indian middle-order batting. At one stage, they were 76 for 6. The Indian bowlers as well as the fielders worked wonders in the field. The historic moment came when Michael Holding was leg before top Amarnath. India became winners in world cricket.

The happiest moment came when the Indian captain Kapil Dev took the Prudential Cup. Amaranth was declared the ‘Man of the Match’. Many spectators waved the Indian tri-colour in joy. People in Indian cities and towns came out on the streets at mid-night to celebrate this historic win.

By Amit Agarwal

Short Paragraph on Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Short Paragraph on Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Guru Nanak Dev JI is a world famous prophet. He was the founder Sikh religion. He was born in 1469 at Talwandi known as Nankana Sahib now in Pakistan. A big fair is held there every year on his birthday.

At an early age, Nanak was sent to a village school. He gave proof of his intelligence even at his age. He soon gave up his studies. Mehta Kalu was his father. Nanak was employed. But out of a small salary he received, he kept only a small portion for his own needs. The rest he gave away to the poor. He spent most of the time in meditation.

His teachings were simple. He wanted to unite the Hindus and the Muslims. He gave the people a lesson of brotherhood. He believed in one God and did not believe in caste and creed. His religion became very popular in Punjab. Thousands of people became his followers. They are called the Sikhs.

Accompanied by his faithful disciple, Bala and Mardana, the holy Guru went from one city to the other. He also went to Mecca and preached the doctrine of love.

He also composed many songs in praise of God. They were later on collected in a book called the Guru Granth Sahib. It has become the holy book of the Sikhs. It is written in Punjabi language.

In 1539, the Great Guru died.

– Paridhi Khanna

Short Paragraph on Guru Gobind Singh

Short Paragraph on Guru Gobind Singh

Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs. He was their last Guru. He was a fine swordsman. He was a brave soldier. He knew how to use a sword and a gun. From his childhood, he had no fear. He could bear pain and suffering.

Under his leadership, the Sikhs fought many battles. He fought against the Mughal ruler. He won many battles with a handful of soldiers. He created the `Khalsa Panth’. He made the Sikhs brave and fearless.

Guru Gobind Singh had four sons. They all died at a young age for their country. He fought against injustice and evil all his life. He showed the people the right path. We should follow his foot-steps.

– Paridhi Khanna