Essay on Unemployment Problem in India

Unemployment is a major problem in India. The population grew by leaps and bounds and when economic disparities between one and the other assumed menacing proportion, the society could not assure everybody of work and a living. In countries like India, due to their underdeveloped economy and unexplored resources, no new avenues of employment could be found for the people.

When the British came and the colonial shackles found the people in India prisoners in their own land, only a handful of people found employment in the new set-up, while the majority languished in the dark abyss of poverty. The colonial exploitation in a backward feudal system might have made Great Britain very prosperous, but the Indians were denied even the barest means to keep them living like humans. As the majority of Indians lived in the villages and depended entirely on land, they had work only for about three months. There was slow growth of planned development and industrialization during the colonial rule which remains a major cause for the problem of umployment in India.

When, at last, the British were made to quit India in 1947 they left behind the specter of poverty and the problem of unemployment. The new rulers of India took quite a number of steps to create new avenues of employment. A process of industrialization started in India. Education too was reorganized so that it could cater for the new age of science and technology, as the old education was found to be losing its relevance in the evolving pattern of things.

But, in the meantime, the growth of population had reached such a proportion that all the new avenues of employment appeared too inadequate to accommodate all those waiting on the long queue that wound its way from one end of the land to the other. Those who were lucky enough to get employed felt rather baffled to find so many millions struggling to get a foothold at the subsistence level.

The growth of her national wealth of India since 1947 has been quite steady. But even then the poverty of the people and the problem of unemployment state us all in the face as menacingly as ever.

The big industries in and around the towns are not what we need. The first imperative is the total reorganization of village economy in all its sectors like agriculture and cottage industries in which every villager can be assured of employment all the year round. The process of regeneration should start working in the villages where poverty and unemployment of India have thrived untrammeled from time immemorial.

The millions of villagers in India should be given the new education and their faith in life should be restored so that they can consciously participate in the development programs and shape their own destiny inside the self-contained village units. If the villagers find employment in the villages they would never come to the towns for a living. Of course, in the meantime family planning should be strictly enforced to get rid of the population explosion which only adds to the problem of unemployment.

-Banerjee.

Essay on Democracy

Introduction

Democracy refers to the system where the government is formed through the elected representatives of the people of the country. India is the largest democratic country in the world.

The word democracy has been derived from the combination of two Greek words ‘demos’ and `kratia’ that mean ‘people’ and ‘rule’ respectively. Thus, the etymological meaning of this word is – `rule of the people’.

Meaning of Democracy

Political thinkers have used the word ‘democracy’ at different times in different senses and for various purposes. Roughly it can be discussed in two ways – (i) in the wide sense and (ii) in the narrow sense.

Democracy in the wider sense:

In the wide sense, democracy means a social system in which there is equality in every sphere – social economic and political. In other words, democracy in the wide sense means a particular form of society, a form of state, a form of government, and even a particular economic system. As Prof. Giddings says, “A democracy may either be a form of government, a form of state, a form of society or a combination nation of all the three.” In the words of Burns, “Democracy, as an ideal, is a society not of similar persons, but of equals, in the sense that each is an integral and irreplaceable part of the whole.”

Again, the form of state which is based on equality is called a democratic state. In a democratic state the ultimate authority is vested in the hands of the people. In such a state, every person—rich or poor, high or low, man or man woman—has the right to take part in the affairs of the state.

According to the socialists, true democratic society is impossible unless economic equality is established. Prof. Laski has observed that political democracy is meaningless without economic democracy. Indeed, political democracy no use to a person if he is not free from want of the bare necessities of life.

a) Democracy in narrow sense:

In the narrow sense, democracy means democratic government. According to Abraham Lincoln, democracy is a ‘Government of the people, by the people and for the people’. But there is a great deal of controversy among the political scientists regarding the interpretation of this definition given by Lincoln.

a. By ‘Government of the people’ is generally meant spontaneous and natural allegiance of the people to the government. But according to Sweezy, “Government of the people is government which emanates from and forms an inseparable part of the people”.

b. Again, ‘Government by the people‘ implies people’s participation in running the government. Professor Seely defines democracy as a government in which everyone has a share. But due to a large population it is impossible for all to participate directly in the government. So, people rule the country indirectly through their elected representatives. Moreover, every individual of the country can never be regarded as eligible to take part in the government. Every country disallows lunatics, criminals, bankrupts and minors from participation on in the government. So, democracy means rule of the majority. It may be said after Dicey that a government may be called democratic if “Government body is a comparatively large fraction of the entire nation.” In the opinion of Bryce, though the authority is vested in the hands of all the people in a democratic government, in reality it turns out to be the rule of the majority.

c. ‘Government for the people‘ stipulates that democratic government serves the interests of all sections of the people. Such a government does not work for the interests of any particular person, group or class. Promotion of the general welfare is the primary duty of such a government.

Modern Concept and definition of Democracy

Recently, Joseph Schumpeter, Robert Dahl, G.C. Field, Plamenatz, Karl Popper and others have given a modern definition of democracy.

Schumpter says, democracy is the system of electing representatives by democratic method.

But to Robert Dahl, democratic method is a process of compromise among different interest-groups.

Again, G.C. Field has said, in this form of government, people are able to influence actively the process of decision-making of the government.

Almost a similar definition has been given by Plamenataz. In his view, democracy is that form of Government which consists of persons freely elected by the governed and which remains responsible to them.

But Popper does not consider rule of the people or the majority of the people to be democracy. In his opinion, democracy is the combination of such institutions though which the people can control the rulers and remove them from power, if necessary.

Importance of Democracy in India

In India, democracy is described as a ‘government based on public opinion’.

For, the views, hopes and aspirations, likes and dislikes of the citizens of India are expressed through it.

So, the government in India has no power to disregard the public opinion. The government has always to remain alert that no law is made against the public opinion. Passing any bill against public interest automatically leads to unfavorable public opinion. As a result, defeat of the government in power becomes inevitable.

So, in a democratic country like India, special importance is given on public opinion.

Conclusion

Democracy may be successful through discussions and mutual understanding between the government and the opposition party, i.e. between the majority and the minority. Hence, Barker has described democracy as a system of government by discussion.

-Rahul Chopra.

Essay on Human Rights

What is Human Rights?

Human rights are those rights to which an individual is entitled by virtue of his status as a human being.

Human rights, according to Prof. Durgadas Basu, are those basic rights which an individual, as a member of the human family, enjoys against the state or against any other governmental authority.

The United Nations’ Centre for Human Rights has identified as human rights those rights which are ‘inherent in our nature’ and without which we cannot live as human being.

According to Dr. Upendra Baxi, human rights are ‘Rights of human species’. The Protection of Human Rights Act passed by the Indian Parliament (1993) defines human rights as those rights which are guaranteed by the constitution of India or included in International Covenant. The important human rights are, according to the Act, right to life, liberty, equality and right to dignity which are enforceable by Indian judiciary.

The government of India has set up a National Human Rights Commission since 1993 in order to promote awareness of these rights.

Importance of Human Rights

From time to time philosophers, politicians, social reformers, socialists and others had stressed the importance of human rights. The UN declaration on Human Rights in December, 1948 highlights the need of human rights. This declaration ensures recognition of inborn status and inalienable rights of all members of human species.

The ideals like liberty, justice and world peace without human rights have no value. Violation of human rights and the brutal activities that were committed earlier are nothing but a serious jolt to human civilisation. So, to pay respect to human values, the ‘Universal Declaration’ has proposed to establish a world, where people can freely express their views and have a liberty of belief, free from fear and poverty. Human rights must be protected by laws, so that people do not find themselves constrained to rise in revolt against exploitation and oppression.

Nature of Human Rights

The actual nature of human rights will be clear and distinct only after analysis of the definitions of human rights. The nature of human rights can be discussed under the following aspects:

1. Universality: A man can enjoy human rights by virtue of his status as human being. All categories of people are entitled to enjoy human rights. So, the Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations in 1948 identified human rights as ‘universal’.

2. Inalienability: By nature human rights are inalienable. So, men cannot hand over these rights to somebody else. Even other individuals have no right to snatch away or destroy such rights. But it is true that all sections of people can never enjoy human rights equally. An honest man is entitled to enjoy all human rights but a criminal or a convicted person cannot claim such rights.

3. Natural Rights: Human rights may be called natural rights in the sense that people acquire these rights from the very inception of their birth. No one delivers those rights to men.

4. Eternal: The duty of every state is to protect and ensure right of the human beings through laws. But in practice, we notice that the state generally tends to interfere unduly with, instead of ensuring, proper enjoyment of rights. Against this interference of the state, people want to establish human rights as eternal right. This demand appears to be rational when rights of the individuals are usually not recognized by the laws of the state. Jack Donnelly beautifully represents the nature’ of human rights by an example. According to him, it may not be always possible to arrest a thief or recover a stolen car. But for this we cannot claim that the owner of the car has lost his ownership right. Similarly, one’s human rights will continue to be one’s rights even after all they are violated or taken away.

5. Inter-relation with duties: The enjoyment of one’s human rights depends on how others perform their duties. Three types of duties are considered essential for the fullest enjoyment of human rights. These are:

  • The duty of not depriving others,
  • The duty to protect others from deprivation, and
  • The duty not to assist in the act of deprivation.

Human rights can be protected if individuals, responsible nations, exploitative companies and others perform the above-mentioned three duties. Thus, man’s rights to be human depend on the performance of duties by the other men and the government.

– Rahul Chopra

Paragraph on Social Justice in India

Social Justice in India

The concept of social justice is a relative concept.

In a broader sense, social justice means not only equality before law,’ equal protection of law and independence of the judiciary from the executive and the legislature, but also denotes protection of the rights of the minority groups, eradication of poverty, illiteracy, unemployment and backwardness. The modern concept of justice is ‘proper and fair coordination between the interests of the individuals or groups and the broader interests of the society’.

The state can impose reasonable restrictions on the rights of the individuals for the common interest of the society. Such restrictions do not ignore the principles of justice; they rather strengthen social justice. For example, we can mention the policy of ‘reservation’ or ‘protective discrimination’ in India. In pursuance of this policy, the state has made certain special provisions for the advancement of the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes; the Anglo-Indian community; other socially and educationally backward classes, women and children. The main objective of such discrimination is to uplift the backward communities and make them equal with the other sections of the Indian people. The above policy of reservation is not detrimental but complementary to equality.

But the Marxists think otherwise. According to them, the so-called slogan of ‘social justice’ is nothing but a deceptive trick. Raising this slogan, the bourgeois theoreticians’ only attempt to maintain the status-quo of the bourgeois society which is marked by gross inequalities and injustices.

– Rahul Chopra.

Short Paragraph on Illiteracy in India and its Solution

Illiteracy in India and its Solution

Illiteracy is a severe problem in India. it is the mother of all socio-economic problems in our country. Children coming from the poor families have to leave school at an early age because of their economic condition. Soon they forget what they have learnt. This causes wastage in education. The number of illiterate children increases. Moreover, the run-down school-houses in our villages and under-developed locality cannot cater to the needs of the children. The adults are illiterate too. Two out of every three women in India are illiterate. The population explosion in the country coupled with high rate of illiteracy is taking India to a very unhappy condition.

Solution

In India, the government has hiked up its resources for both formal and non-formal education to fight to problem of illiteracy. Adult literacy drives and literacy campaigns are being organized. The students should not sit idle. They must organize mass literacy drives and work with the motto, “Each one – teach one”.

– Paridhi Khanna

Short Paragraph on Drug Addiction

Short Paragraph on Drug Addiction

Drug Addiction is one of the serious problems of the present times. The narcotics like heroin, hashish, and brown-sugar are commonly called drugs and young men and women either take these drugs orally or inhale their smoke.

Sociologist says that drug-addiction is an addiction which has come to India and other oriental countries from the western-countries. The Indians are aping the west and becoming drug-addicts. In the modern society there are several family-problems. The lack of love and affection forces youths to get addicted to drugs. Sometimes the pressure of addicted friends tempts the youth to become an addict.

Psychologists say that drugs help the addict to escape from the strains and problems of the world. But they damage the nervous system tremendously and shatter the mental make-up of the addicts. It even causes death. Even if the addict gives up taking drugs suddenly he may die. So withdrawal must be done gradually.

Drug-addicts must be treated with love and kindness. The society should take strong measures to control the dishonest businessmen and drug-traffickers. There are laws of drug-control all over the world, yet drug-addiction is increasing gradually. What is needed an anti-drugs consciousness among the youth of the different countries.

– Paridhi Khanna