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Short Essay on Democracy


Democracy has been defined as ‘the Government of the people, by the people, and for the people’. It is the only form of Government in which the will of the people is reflected in the administration.

In other forms of Government such as monarchy, oligarchy, etc. all the power is concentrated in the hands of one person or group of persons who carry on the administration irrespective of people’s wishes. Even if those types of Government are conducted in the interest of the people, since the people have no connection with the administration, they cannot feel very happy under them.

But though the masses are connected with the Government in a democracy, they cannot, obviously all of them, take an active part in the conduct of the Government.

There was, of course, a time when the number of people in a State was limited and then such a method was possible and people could assemble in one place and take decision on all important matters by majority vote. This was the rule in the city-States of ancient Greece.

But now with the phenomenal increase of population in each State, it is not possible for each and every person in a State to take an active part in its administration. So people have to be represented by persons of their choice, to speak for them in the House of legislature and to keep watch over the activities of the Government.

The next question that arises is, who are the people who can be safely entrusted with leadership in a democracy. A leader should identify himself with the people whom he professes to serve. It is his business to reflect the wishes and frustrations of the people in the council of the nation. Rich or poor whatever he may be, devoted service to the people is the first requisite for leadership in a democracy.

The historical evolution of democracy is an interesting study. In most of the cities in early Europe the Government seems to have been at first monarchical also. But arrogance and oppression provoked rising which in many cases ended by vesting power ion all the free voters.

The weakness of democracy should not be left out of consideration. This form of government attaches greater importance to quantity than to quality and since every person does not possess the same amount of political talents, a democratic government cannot ensure better administration of public affairs.

Further this form of government lacks stability and is not favorable to the development of art, science and culture. But whatever good or evil is the outcome of democracy, people, being more politically conscious nowadays, favor a democratic Government.

-Dipti Basu.

Relationship between Equality and Liberty

Relationship between Equality and Liberty

Emphasis on liberty:

The ideals of liberty and equality have inspired men to establish a new society in every age. But the controversy that has been going on for a long time about their mutual relationship has not died down till today. The slave system being prevalent in ancient Greece and Rome, all men were not considered to be equal. So, the place of liberty was then much higher than that of equality.

Similarly, the value of equality was totally neglected in the medieval period. Even Locke, the representative thinker of the rising bourgeoisie, identified three types of natural rights where there was no mention of the right to equality. He regarded the right to life, liberty and property as the natural rights.

Equal emphasis on liberty and equality:

Utopian social like Thomas More, Campanella, Winstanly, Munster, Leveler, Digars, Simon, Charles Fourier, Robert Owen and others gave an emphasis on removing inequalities. Some of them, for example, Simon, advocated proper coordination between liberty and equality. He considered any type of domination of man over man to be detrimental to liberty.

Actually in the Declaration of Rights in Virginia of America (1776) and in the Declaration of French Human Rights (1789), the importance was given first to make a balanced coordination between liberty and equality. The declaration of the Rights of Man (1789) issued by the National Assembly of France said, “Men are born, and continue, free and equal in respect of their rights.”

Equality antithetical to liberty:

There is a great controversy among the modern scholars of political science about the relationship between liberty and equality. In 19th century, the advocates of individualism demanded liberty for the sake of free competition and their ideas went against the theory of equality.

Some scholars thought that the concept of equality and liberty are against each other.

Lord Acton commented that the passion for equality ‘made vain the hope of freedom’. By liberty he wanted to mean unrestrained right to satisfy the appetite for wealth and power. He had the apprehension that the establishment of equality would impose restrictions on the freedom of the wealthy people, and so he considered equality to be antithetic to liberty. Thinkers like Tocqueville, Spencer and Begihot also expressed the same view.

Close relation between liberty and equality:

John Stuart Mill thought that liberty and equality are complementary to each other. He analyzed liberty from the perspective of social welfare. For this reason, Mill opined that economic equality is necessary for establishing liberty.

In the 20th century, Hobouse, Laski, Barker, Tawney, Pollard and others considered that equality and freedom are complementary to each other.

Even Rousseau argued in the 18th century that freedom is impossible without equality.

Analyzing the correlation between liberty and equality, Barker observes that equality is not a detached principle. It stands in favour of the principles like liberty and fraternity. So, what is needed is the proper coordination between equality, liberty and fraternity. So, it may be said that equality and liberty are not antithetic to each other; they rather supplement each other.

Opinions of Laski and the Marxists:

Equality and liberty are both a legal concept. For, the state implements the concept of liberty and equality with the help of law. Both the concepts are closely associated with the idea of development of the capacities of the individuals.

Liberty implies a social atmosphere where each and every person can freely develop his own capacities. Needless to say, this social atmosphere means the atmosphere of equality. Again we can analyze the relation between liberty and equality from another aspect. Both the principles of liberty and equality aim at achieving fullest development of the capacities of the citizens. The state paves the way for this development through the laws. But if society is marked by the presence of equalities and disparities, it becomes impossible to establish liberty.

Laski in his Grammar of Politics, thus, commented that liberty without economic equality is meaningless. Economic equality demands abolition of private property.

The Marxists also believe that in an unequal society, the so-called liberties become meaningless in the absence of economic equality. In this class-divided society the state and its legal imperatives act as an instrument of the possessing class. As a result, it cannot ensure economic liberty of the ordinary citizens.

So, the Marxists consider establishment of economic equality to be the precondition of liberty According to them, only in the socialist society liberty and equality can really supplement each other.

– Rahul Chopra.

Ocean Currents in Pacific Ocean

Ocean Currents in Pacific Ocean

Ocean Currents with Clockwise Circulation

  1. North-Pacific Equatorial Current is a warm current caused by the North-East Trade wind.
  2. OyaShio is cold current flowing from the northern edge of the Pacific Ocean off the eastern coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kuril of Russia. `Oya’ means cool and ‘Shio’ current.
  3. KuroShio (or Japan Current) is a warm current flowing along south and eastern coast of Japan. It is also called Japan Current. The Kuro (warm) Shio current is formed by the North Pacific Equatorial Current. Latter’s water divides off the Philippines and forms the Kuro shio.
  4. Californian Current is a cool current in the Pacific Ocean. Temperature of water masses in this is lower than that of the water masses in the surroundings.
  5. North Pacific Drift is a warm current. It is caused by the westerlies. It is in fact the continuation of the Kuro shio.
  6. Pacific Equatorial Counter Current (Coriolis effect is nil) is a warm current flowing from the western margin of the Pacific Ocean to its eastern margin along a line about 5°N. It is a compensatory counter current.

Ocean currents with anticlockwise circulation

  1. South Pacific Equatorial Current are a warm current. It flows westward from the eastern margin of the Pacific along the west coast of the northern South America towards eastern coast of New Guinea.
  2. South Pacific Drift is a cool current. It flows eastward in about 40° South parallel. It is also called West Wind Drift.
  3. Cromwell Current is an, undercurrent flowing eastward along the equator beneath the South Pacific Equatorial current.
  4. Peru or Humboldt Current is a cold ocean current in the Pacific Ocean. Antarctic water and up-welling west-coast water, together with its northward direction, all make this current markedly cold. It flows along the Chile and Peru coasts of South America. This current is known as Peru Current or Current of Humboldt.
  5. Antarctic Circumpolar Current is a cool current. It flows around the Antarctic continent clockwise in latitudes 50° to 65°S.
  6. El Nino is a warm Pacific current, originating in the warm equatorial current. It occurs with intensity every seven to fourteen years and temporarily replaces the cold current (Humboldt Current) off the Peru coast. The El Nino effect causes sudden change of temperature. It kills fish even, so that beaches are littered with dead fish.

– Bipasha Mukherjee.

Conditions suitable for the location of a Port

Conditions suitable for the location of a Port

The favourable conditions suitable for the location of a Port are mentioned below:

  1. Broken coastline.
  2. Deep offshore water.
  3. Natural harbors.
  4. Absence of submerged mountains in the sea adjacent to the port.
  5. Rich hinterland.
  6. Storage facilities available in the port.
  7. Nearness of a dry-dock.
  8. Supply of sufficient fuel required by the ships etc. is required for the development of the port.

By Amit Agarwal